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US History: A Soviet Perspective post #1  quote:



I stumbled across this the other night while I was bored out of my skull

I ceased to be bored out of my skull.

I cannot tell you how much I love seeing things from another perspective.

I think it ranks above sleep and food!

craziness man

http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculu...H/Contents.html

it's from a Soviet textbook published in 1965


Old Post 07-20-2004 06:32 AM
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Ch 13: The United States After the War of Independence - Civil War in North America post #2  quote:

Section 43. THE UNITED STATES BETWEEN TWO REVOLUTIONS

The U.S.A. after the War of Independence. As a result of the War of Independence the 13 former English colonies united to form the United States of America. This was the first independent state in North America. However, economically the United States continued to be dependent on the more highly developed countries of Europe for some time. Europe exported manufactured goods to America, while the United States supplied England and the other countries of Europe with cotton--the principal raw material needed by the machine-operated textile industry. This cotton was the product of slave toil on the plantations of slave-holders in the southern United States. The rapid development of the textile industry in England, France, Russia, Prussia and elsewhere in Europe as well as in the northern United States required a tremendous amount of cotton. Cotton prices were high, and cotton-growing was profitable even with the low productivity of slave labour. The slave-holders were moving into the vast fertile areas of the south-western United States.

During the first half of the 19th century the government of the United States was in the hands of the slave-holders. Between the War of Independence of the 18th century and the Civil War of 1861-1865 nearly all the presidents had been slave-holders. The bourgeoisie humbly gave up the management of state affairs to the slave-holders. The American businessmen-politicians quailed at every sharp rebuke made by the slave-holders, and the American bourgeois democrats gave in every time, after a show of resistance, on every political matter of importance. In theory, democracy, or government by the people, was the system in the United States. Actually, however, it merely served both the slave-holders and the bourgeoisie as a cloak to conceal the true state of affairs. There is no true democracy under the capitalist system, which maintains bourgeois ownership of industrial plants and land, and where the masses must fight to win democratic institutions for themselves, such as the parliamentary system, in order to further their own interests. Capitalist rule over the masses is extremely oppressive even in a bourgeois democracy, as it was in the United States, where not only the Negro slaves but the hired workers, too, were submitted to cruel exploitation.

Expansionist Foreign Policy and Foreign Wars of the U.S.A. . Not content with oppressing the masses and particularly the "coloured" population, i.e. Negroes and Indians, the American bourgeoisie and slave-holders were intent on grabbing what land they could beyond the frontier. They began with the Indians, whom they exterminated in order to seize their lands. "A good Indian is a dead Indian," said the American generals who fought the Indians. One of the methods of extermination was to leave blankets near the Indian villages, which the unsuspecting Indians would pick up and use as bedding. They died shortly in large numbers: the blankets had previously been used for smallpox patients and even for wrapping those who had died of the disease. As early as the 19th century the American military had employed some of the methods of monstrous bacteriological warfare.

As they seized the Indian lands the American authorities forced entire tribes to migrate to the barren highlands, prairies and swamps of the interior. Many of them, especially the women and children, did not survive the hardships of these forced marches.


The Monroe Doctrine. By 1823 practically all the Latin American colonies had proclaimed their independence. The capitalists and planters who ruled the United States were determined to obtain control over these new countries. In 1823 President Monroe, who was a prominent slave-holder, declared in a message to Congress that the United States would not permit the establishment of any new European colonies in the two Americas, i.e. North and South America, but failed to assert that the United States had no expansionist intentions. The Monroe Doctrine, in a nutshell, proclaimed "America for the Americans," meaning all of America for the U.S.A.

From this time on the U.S. capitalists referred to the Monroe Doctrine when seizing foreign lands, and it should be mentioned that distant lands were also seized, such as the Philippines and the Hawaiian Islands.


Fort Ross Colony. Pressure by the United States caused the Russian tsar Nicholas I in 1839 to give up one of the Russian colonies in North America. Fort Ross, a Russian colony established in California as a food supply base for the extensive Russian possessions in Alaska, which had been discovered and settled by Russians, was sold to an American citizen named Sutter. Soon after the richest gold deposits in the world of the time were discovered on the territory of this former Russian possession in California.


Seizures of Texas and War with Mexico. In 1845 the United States seized an extensive area in Texas, which had seceded from Mexico some time before as the result of the intrigues of American slave-holders. Continuing their seizure of southern areas in 1846, the United States attacked neighboring Mexico, which was relatively weaker, and after two years of war and plunder seized the vast territories of New Mexico and California.


Expansionist U.S.A. Policy in the Pacific and on the Isthmus of Panama. The U.S. policy of expansion began to be implemented in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific area as early as the 19th century. Following the English attack on China and the war that ended in the signing of an unequal treaty, the United States signed a similar treaty with China, which laid that country open to plunder.

In 1853 the United States sent a fleet to Japan. Menaced by the guns of American warships, Japan was forced to capitulate and sign an unequal treaty with the United States.

In 1846 U.S. forces were landed on the Isthmus of Panama, which belonged to the Colombian Republic. Here the American capitalists planned to dig a canal which would link the American Ocean with the Pacific.

In the next half-century the United States, busy with the occupation of the Isthmus of Panama in order to establish its rule over the countries of Central America, sent her navy or marines into that area on more than 50 occasions. Government that the United States did not favour were overthrown and new governments were formed with the participation of American hirelings. Any opposition on the part of the population was suppressed by the U.S. army and navy.


Settlement of the West. Formation of Home Market. Great numbers of peasants and workmen were migrating to North America from Europe, driven by poverty and unemployment. They expected to obtain work or to settle on the virgin lands. A total of more than 5 million came to America between the end of the 18th century and 1860.

In the meantime harsh exploitation of the workers caused a continuous stream of them from the industrial towns in the North-East to flow towards the Indian territories of the West. There were two such streams of settlers: these were the wealthy plantation owners of the South with their slaves, and the poor immigrants of the northern states who yearned for a bit of land where they could run their own farm. Here is a description of a poor family on their westward trek: "The man hitches himself to the wagon and pulls it along, holding on to the shafts, his son giving him a helping hand, while his wife sits in the wagon and the old woman walks beside it with a gun on her shoulder, leading a cow." In the South, armed bands of planters seized new lands and kept away the farmers, who insisted on free distribution of all western lands in small parcels. Poor settlers, with no money to pay for land, seized it without bothering about formalities.

From the very beginning of the settlement of the West there was no equality among the settlers in regard to property. Some had more cattle, farm implements, food products, etc., than the others. Some were in dire need and forced to borrow from the more fortunate, frequently paying back what they had borrowed in labour. In areas where there were no more than trails or dirt roads subsistence farming was the rule in the West. As industry developed, however, towns grew, roads were improved, canals were built for shipping, and local markets were opened. Products of Western agriculture and stock-farming began to be shipped down the Mississippi to the slave states of the South.

In the 1840-1850s large scale industry had become the mainstay of the U.S. economy. The industrial revolution, now virtually complete, and the construction of railways, which had begun in the 1830s, speeded the transition from subsistence to market farming and local markets were becoming linked together to form a single national market.


Plantation Slavery in Southern States. The southern states with their fertile soil and hot climate were suitable for large cotton plantations operated by slave labour. Manufacturing industries were practically non-existent. The cotton plantations, where the Negro slaves were worked to death, spread westward.



Plantation owners in need of slaves could buy them as they would buy cattle or any commodity. Newspapers were full of advertisements which ran as follows: "Excellent Negroes for sale; young woman to cook, wash and iron, with four children: two boys, 12 and 9, girl, 5, able to sew, and girl, 4." Slaves were sold by families, though more often singly.

The treatment of slaves was brutal. Chaining and whipping were common. Seven or ten years in the cotton fields were usually enough to kill a slave.



The slaves carried on a struggle for their emancipation, and uprisings were frequent. One of considerable importance, headed by Nat Turner, occurred in 1831 in Virginia. Nat Turner was a skilled worker: he knew how to make paper, gunpowder and pottery. His purpose in raising the revolt was to free the Negro slaves. Armed with axes and scythes, the rebels started out to kill plantation-owners and free the Negroes. As they were unorganized and lacked a definite plan, they experienced defeat after defeat, and the uprisings ended with the execution of Nat Turner and twenty of his followers.

After quelling the rebellion the plantation owners and their servants roamed the country-side with dogs, hunting down and killing those Negroes who had escaped. Two generals commanding the government forces were given the job of catching and shooting the runaway slaves, whose heads were then paraded on pikes as a lesson to others. Nat Turner's rebellion was one of many in the struggle of the slaves for liberty.

Exploitation of Workers in U.S.A. Labour Movement. While slavery was developing in the South of the United States, the North continued to develop its industry, especially in cotton textiles. By 1860 there were some 1,800,000 hired workers employed in industry and transport and some 800,000 farm labourers. During the first half of the 19th century a considerable part of those employed in the textile industry were boys and girls; nine and ten-year-old children worked 12 or 13 hours a day.

Strikes among factory workers were frequent. The 1850s saw the creation of the first Marxist organization in the United States. A friend of Marx by the name of Weydemeyer, who had taken part in the German revolution of 1848 and belonged to the Communist League, came over to the United States, but his efforts to organize a Marxist party with numerous membership ended in failure. The creation of a socialist party favouring public ownership of the means of production was hampered in the U.S.A. by the fact that many workers were planning to acquire farms of their own in the West.


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Ch 13: The United States After the War of Independence - Civil War in North America post #3  quote:

Section 44. PRELUDE TO CIVIL WAR IN THE U.S.A.

The Abolitionists. In the 1830s the slaves, who had been practically alone in their struggle for liberty, were joined by the abolitionists, [The word "abolitionist" comes from the word "to abolish" which means "to do away with;" here it refers to doing away with slavery.] who demanded that an immediate end should be put to slavery. Negroes and whites, workers and farmers, as well as progressive elements of the bourgeoisie joined the abolitionist movement.



A fervent fighter for the emancipation of his fellow-slaves was Frederick Douglass. A slave himself in his youth, Douglass had personally experienced the horrors of slavery. Because of his recalcitrant nature he had been given to a "slave tamer" famous for his cruelty, but he had succeeded in escaping from him to make his way North. His entire life was devoted to the fight against slavery and to educational and organizational work among the Negroes.



The abolitionists organized the so-called Underground Railway, which was a secret movement by which they (mainly farmers) assisted fugitive slaves from one "station" to another until they reached Canada, where slavery did not exist. Harriet Tubman, who had been born into slavery in Maryland but had escaped to the North was famous for her deeds. After this she made 19 trips from Canada to the South to help the slaves in their efforts to escape and she personally guided about 300 Negroes to the North. Plantation owners offered 40,000 dollars for her head, yet she continued fearlessly to help the unfortunate Negroes.

Many abolitionists met their death at the hands of the slave-holders. American Marxist workers were the most consistent in the political fight for the cause of emancipation.

John Brown's Insurrection. The years 1854-1856 were marked by armed struggle between plantation owners and farmers in the newly settled western territory of Kansas. The struggle was won by the farmers, but the government sent troops into the territory and installed a slave-holders' administration. This proved to the masses that slavery would never be abolished while a slave-holders' administration remained in power.



In 1859 fighting broke out in Virginia, where John Brown, a farmer and a prominent abolitionist, attempted to start a slave uprising. John Brown proposed to establish a stronghold in the Alleghenies from which the uprising could spread to the plantations. On a dark rainy night he succeeded in seizing the government arsenal at Harper's Ferry, a small town on the border between the states of Virginia and Maryland. His force numbered 23 men in all, including himself, his three sons and two sons-in-law, as well as 5 Negroes. Men were dispatched at once to neighbouring plantations to free the slaves and seize the slave-holders as hostages.



John Brown's attempts to start an uprising ended in failure. By nightfall on the following day troops from the capital (Washington) arrived at Harper's Ferry and his force was entirely destroyed. Brown was captured, brought into the courthouse on a stretcher, seriously wounded, and was sentenced to death by a "democratic" American court. Ill and wounded as he was, he was sent to the gallows.

"I, John Brown, am now fully convinced that only blood will wash out the grave crime of this sinful land," courageously wrote John Brown on the eve of his execution, referring to slavery.

Brown's exploit promoted rising of slaves in a number of places. Marx wrote regarding these uprisings: "In my opinion, the biggest things that are happening in the world today are on the one hand the movement of the slaves in America, started by the death of John Brown, and on the other the movement of the slaves in Russia." [K. Marx and F. Engels, Selected Correspondence, Eng. ed., Moscow, 1955, p. 144.] (In his reference to Russia Marx meant the uprisings of the serfs.)

Formation of Republican Party. Abraham Lincoln. In 1854, while the struggle in Kansas was still going on, the Republican party was formed, uniting the industrial bourgeoisie and the farmers. The workers too, joined the new party. Leadership of the party was assumed by the bourgeoisie. The Republican party maintained that all of the West should be open to settlement by farmers free of charge and that there should be a restriction and eventually the abolition of slavery. Prominent in the Republican party was Abraham Lincoln.



Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) was born in Kentucky into the family of a poor and illiterate pioneer farmer. Their neighbor, a wealthy plantation and slave-holder, took a dislike to the Lincoln family because of their friendly attitude toward Negroes, and began to make life hard for them, finally forcing Lincoln's father to sell his farm and move into the newly opened territories of the West. Young Lincoln was his father's constant helper; he was an excellent worker and his physical strength was a local legend: no one in the neighbourhood could sink an axe deeper into a tree trunk than Abraham. In his youth, Lincoln tried his hand at many occupations; at one time he was a clerk in a shop; once he took a cargo down the Mississippi on a flat boat. He earned the respect of the county's inhabitants and was made postmaster. He next prepared for a law examination, passed it, and began to practice as a lawyer. Later he was elected to Congress. The entire country listened with strained attention while he campaigned against slavery. His fight against slavery won him the support of the workers, farmers and progressive elements of the bourgeoisie.

Rebellion of the Slave-Holding South. In 1860 the Republican party nominated Lincoln for presidency, and he was duly elected. His election was a signal for the slave-holders to rebel. In 1860 the state of South Carolina was the first to secede from the Union, and was followed by other slave states. The pro-slavery leaders called a convention, formed a government and elected colonel Davis, a wealthy plantation-owner, to the presidency. "Our new government's cornerstone," announced the vice-president of the Confederacy (this was the name given to the secessionist states) at the rebel convention, "rests upon the great truth that the Negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery . . . is his natural and normal condition." Thus the Southern states started their rebellion in defence of the shameful institution of slavery.

There were now in North America two presidents, two White Houses and two Congresses. There were also two armies, because one of the first acts of the Confederate Congress had been to muster an army of 100,000 men. Military operations were started by the North and South in April 1861.


Causes of Civil War. For four years, from 1861 to 1865 the flames of Civil War swept over the United States. This was a bitter class struggle, a bourgeois revolution, which split the country in two in armed conflict with each other. In this Civil War the progressive industrial North was opposed to the backward slave-holding South. Wherever slavery prevailed, -- and it prevailed throughout the South, that is to say, over a considerable part of the country -- it held back the development of both industry, and agriculture. Whether the fields were property or carefully tilled was a matter of indifference to the slaves. In the South the earth was tilled chiefly with a hoe; ploughs were seldom used. On the plantations the soil soon lost its fertility, and the forests were dwindling.

Slavery had an adverse effect on the welfare of both workers and farmers; therefore they fought against it. The farmers demanded distribution of land free of charge, which was opposed by the plantation- and slave-owners. The progressive bourgeoisie opposed slavery because the slave-holding South was a poor market for manufactured goods and the continued existence of slavery meant that the United States lagged behind the other capitalist countries.

Thus we see that the primary cause of the Civil War lay in the clash of two modes of production, slavery and hired labour, and the struggle for power between the slave-holders, on the one hand, and the bourgeoisie, supported by the masses of the North, on the other. Yet there were elements among the bourgeoisie, such as the textile manufacturers of the North, who feared a break with the South, for if their supply of southern cotton were cut off, they would have to suspend operations and consequently lose some of their profits.


Old Post 07-20-2004 06:44 AM
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Ch 13: The United States After the War of Independence - Civil War in North America post #4  quote:

Section 45. CIVIL WAR IN NORTH AMERICA

Comparative Resources of North and South. Outbreak of War. The Northern States possessed a well-developed industry, a ramified network of railways, and a population, in 1860, of 22 million. The South had a population of 9 million, of which over 3 million were slaves. Southern industry was very poorly developed. The Southern slave-holders realized that they could never defeat the Northerners in a protracted conflict, and they built their expectations on foreign intervention, that is, on the aid of English or French troops. The English and French bourgeoisie would have been only too glad to crush the industrial states of the North, who were their commercial rivals, and turn America into a colony, and the British government actually got ready to intervene (troops had already been sent to Canada, across the border from the U.S.A.); but the plan of intervention fell through after English workers staged several formidable meetings to protest against it. France, finding herself alone, decided to refrain.

When the Civil War was at its height, two squadrons were despatched to North America by Russia, one crossing the Atlantic from Kronstadt to New York, the other sailing from the Far East to San Francisco. The arrival of the two Russian squadrons in the United States constituted an act of political support of the North.

Some Russians took part in the Civil War, among them Tourchaninov, a former Russian officer and a distinguished graduate of the General Staff Academy at St. Petersburg, who had given up a promising career, and moved to London, where he had been in contact with the prominent Russian revolutionary democrat Gerzen. Leaving London, he had come to the United States, where he built railways. When the Civil War broke out, Tourchaninov went to the front as commanding officer of a regiment of Chicago volunteers and distinguished himself in a number of battles. He made it his practice to free Negroes and enroll them in his regiment, and this called down upon him the wrath of some generals who were at heart in sympathy with the South. He was tried by a military court, which deprived him of his commission and discharged him from the army. President Lincoln, however, annulled the court ruling and promoted Tourchaninov to the rank of brigadier-general, after which he led his troops into a number of successful battles against the Southerners.


Military Operations. On two occasions the Southerners nearly succeeded in taking Washington, but were beaten back by the defenders. The Northerners then adopted a plan of crushing the Southerners by encirclement (the "anaconda policy"). Marx and Engels pointed out in their articles that the plan was not a good one, since the body of the "anaconda could be severed at random, and that in order to win, it was necessary to strike deep in the enemy's rear, cutting the railway lines in the state of Georgia, and that it was all-important to draw the Negro slaves into the fight. What the Northerners needed in order to win, according to Marx and Engels, were revolutionary tactics and above all the abolition of slavery.




The Northern generals were irresolute in their conduct of the war, preferring to avoid large-scale offensive operations, and the workers and farmers of the North began to raise their voices in criticism of such policy. Throughout the Union, from Maine in the North to far-away California in the West, people were demanding decisive action and an end of pro-slavery propaganda, which was conducted openly in the North, even through the press.

Northern capitalists were buying cotton smuggled in from the South and selling arms to the rebels. The Northern bourgeoisie were wary of emancipation, fearing that the abolition might be followed by a workers' movement in the North for ending capitalist ownership of industrial enterprises.

During the war years, while workers were covering themselves with glory on the fields of battle, the United States government was using troops to crush any economic strikes on the part of blacksmiths, foundrymen and other workers.



While fighting the slave-holding plantation-owners of the South, the American workers had also to fight the numerous secret sympathizers which the slave-holders had among the Northern bourgeoisie. These secret agents of the South were called "copperheads" after the venomous snake that strikes without warning.

Transition to Revolutionary Strategy. The war reached a turning point when under pressure of popular demand the Union government undertook decisive action.

In 1862 President Lincoln signed the Homestead Act, granting every real settler a free farm out of the tremendous stretch of unoccupied lands in the West.

Meanwhile workers, farmers and soldiers were demanding the abolition of slavery. Every day saw the arrival of runaway slaves at military encampments. When caught by their masters, these runaway slaves were given a severe whipping and sometimes killed. The soldiers gave them shelter and refused to surrender them to their masters. There were elements in the army who were becoming unruly. At last, on 22nd September 1862, Lincoln signed a government statement that unless the mutiny was stopped the slaves in the states or areas where mutiny occurred would be declared free from 1st January 1863. Upon affixing his signature to the preliminary announcement Lincoln remarked: "If my name is ever mentioned in history, it will be for this act, for I have put my heart in it."

The announcement of the forthcoming emancipation caused great excitement among the masses. In the state of Maine, for instance, guns were fired, bells rang and bonfires burned, much as when the Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776. Two thousand soldiers sang a song about John Brown. In New York City people in the streets stopped to congratulate each other on the probable early end of the war. New Years' Day 1863 finally arrived, and slavery had actually been abolished. No land, however, was distributed among the Negroes. 186,000 Negroes, former slaves, were enrolled in the army and navy. A still greater number worked on the construction of fortifications. Yet the racially-minded American bourgeoisie deprived the Negroes of equal rights even in the armed forces: in the army they drew less pay than the whites, and were allowed to serve only as rank and file soldiers, while in the navy even grey-haired Negroes could enlist only as apprentice seamen. Yet Negroes had been fighting heroically in the Northern ranks. Harriet Tubman, for example, the former "conductor of the Underground Railway," had rendered invaluable service to the Northern armies as a scout, penetrating far behind the Southern lines and obtaining important information for the Northern command. She helped the Negroes in the Southern states to make their way North, where they joined the Union forces.



Growing popular demand forced the Union government to take resolute action against the counter-revolutionaries. It began weeding counter-revolutionaries and doubtful elements out of the army. Workers in different trades organized their own companies and regiments (e.g. printers, construction workers, etc.). Immigrant workers organized national regiments. Worker's regiments elected their own commanders; among these quite a few socialists were elected, such as Weydemeyer, the German communist and friend of Marx's. Best in the army were the workers' regiments, which won many battles. Negro soldiers -- yesterday's slaves -- performed feats of courage. The Northern troops now fought with fresh enthusiasm and gained victory after victory. Workers and farmers went into battle singing: "John Brown's body lies a-mould'ring in the grave, but his soul goes marching on."

The overwhelming industrial superiority of the North was beginning to tell.

With military operations developing as they did, the Northerners were forced to adopt the strategy which had been advocated from the very beginning in the articles of Marx and Engels. In 1864 a Northern Army under general Sherman slashed through enemy lines, occupied the state of Georgia, where it started a Negro rebellion, and cut the main Southern rail communications. The Northern armies were not the only force battering the slave-holders state: Southern Negroes in revolt dealt serious blows as well as detachments of "poor whites," in particular small farmers of the Southern mountains, who fought guerilla style.


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Ch 13: The United States After the War of Independence - Civil War in North America post #5  quote:

Section 46. RESULTS OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. ITS SIGNIFICANCE

Northern Victory (spring of 1865). While the Northern forces were driving deep into the enemy rear, General Grant, Commander-in-Chief of the Union armies, invested the Confederate capital of Richmond. The fall of Richmond, in April 1865, was followed a few days later by the surrender of General Lee, Confederate Commander-in-Chief, with the remnants of his army. Grant took no precautionary measures, letting the Confederate officers keep their arms and allowing their troops to go home after providing both officers and men with horses and five days' rations.


Assassination of Lincoln (14th April 1865). Great celebrations were held all over the North to mark the victory. All caution was dropped in regard to the vanquished foe. And on April 14th 1865, five days after Lee's surrender, Abraham Lincoln, the great son of the American people, was assassinated in the box of a Washington theatre while watching a performance in celebration of the victory. His assassin was an actor -- a hireling of the Southern slave-holders.

The struggle for power which followed Lincoln's assassination was won by the big bourgeoisie, which established its dictatorship over the country.

After the Northern troops had been withdrawn from the South, the former slave-holders refused to recognize the authorities set up by the Union government and began to revive slavery. A second secession of he South from the Union became a real possibility.

In view of this development Congress decided on a military re-occupation of the South, which was to be divided into five military districts, each ruled by a general who had fought in the Civil War. Congress further introduced amendments to the constitution, which afforded Negroes the same civil and political rights as the other citizens. In South Carolina the state Congress now numbered 76 Negro and 43 white representatives, in Louisiana -- 49 Negroes and 49 whites. Yet in no state was a Negro admitted to a position of responsibility.

The Northern bourgeoisie utilized the Negroes to complete the political defeat of the former slave-holders, to whom they returned their lands rather than distribute them among the Negroes. Alarmed by the increasing revolutionary activity of the Negroes, the Northern bourgeoisie made a new deal with the former Southern slave-holders. Bit by bit they revived a regime of terror against the Negroes, staged a number of Negro massacres, and were soon back in power. The Negroes armed themselves and fought back, but were defeated.

By 1876 the former slave-holders, together with the bourgeoisie, were in control throughout the South. Once again the Negroes were actually deprived of their political rights and were subjected to racial discrimination.


Significance of American Civil War. Before the Civil War power in the United States had been wielded by the slave-holders, but now it belonged to the big bourgeoisie of the North who made a deal with the former slave-holders of the South. The Civil War had brought the Negro population of the Southern states no real freedom. Plantation slavery, which had held back the country's development, was abolished, and the Negro slaves were emancipated, but they had not received any land grants and were obliged to work in the fields of their former masters as hired labourers or share-croppers. The bondage of slavery was replaced by the bondage of capitalism plus certain vestiges of slavery. Racial oppression remained. This shameful discrimination against the Negroes has remained in the United States to this day: Negroes are paid lower wages than the whites, and in the South they are forbidden to study in the same schools, to ride in the same trams and buses as the whites, etc. Negroes are still frequently lynched in the South for fighting for their political and civil rights.

The Civil War did not relieve the tragic lot of the Indian tribes either. American army troops blocked a large group of Apache Indians in a valley of the Rocky Mountains. Here the Indians fought off the American troops for eleven years. Grant and other Civil War generals won sad renown for their atrocities against the Indians.

The Northern victory promoted the development of capitalism and the exploitation of the workers; yet it was of real value for the growth of the labour movement. The workers were now able to face the bourgeoisie which was their chief enemy, rather than fight the plantation and slave-owners. While the Civil War was raging, trade organizations were being rapidly established, and when the war was over the workers of some states obtained the passage of the first eight-hour working day laws.

The Civil War had given the farmers the Homestead Act and removed the danger of the seizure of the Western lands by the slave-holders. The number of farmers grew in the South, too, for here the bourgeoisie bought up the estates of former slave-holders and sold them in small lots. Stratification of the farmers also increased during the post-war period, however; farmer-proprietors who employed hired labour appeared, while the majority of the farmers were going out of business and swelling the ranks of farm labourers. The farmers found themselves in the greatest difficulty as a result of capitalist exploitation. The bourgeoisie turned the Homestead Act to good advantage, buying up small plots from numerous farmers and obtaining, by bribery, vast lands under the guise of homesteads.


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post #6  quote:

REVIEW OF CHAPTER 13

The Civil War of 1861 -- 1865 was a form of bourgeoisie revolution in which the masses took a considerable part and this forced the Lincoln administration to carry out certain measures in their interest (Homestead Act, emancipation). One result of the war was that the big bourgeoisie took advantage of the armed conflict between the workers and the farmers, on the one hand, and the plantation slave-owners, on the other, and made a deal whereby the plantation and slave-owners kept their lands and were not persecuted for their part in the rebellion. Acting jointly with the Southern plantation-owners, the bourgeoisie suppressed the revolutionary activities of the workers and farmers, white or Negro, and, once in power, established its oppression of the masses.

30 or 40 years after the Civil War, the United States surpassed England in the field of economic development to become the world's leading industrial country. In the meantime, wars and conquests considerably extended the United States colonial possessions.


Old Post 07-20-2004 06:53 AM
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post #7  quote:

hoo buddy! That's a lot of reading.

It's worth it though so I encourage you to set some time aside.

If you want to read more the site I posted has the Soviet interpretation of the American Revolution too.

Man that had never even occured to me before. I mean vaguely it did, but I may be hunting down other nations' history books now. My brain is churning to much. I might go insane. BUT IT'S A GOOD INSANE!

You know when you read textbooks they have those damn questions that our teachers always made us answer for homework? I'm gonna post those from the book too.


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post #8  quote:

Questions for Revision


Section 43.

Describe the development of the North and the South in the United States after the War of Independence.
In what way did the United States achieve territorial expansion during the first half of the 19th century?
What was the true nature of the Monroe Doctrine?
Describe the settlement of the West.
How were the slave-labour plantations run in the United States?
What was the condition of the workers in the U.S.A.? What interfered with the propaganda of socialism among the American workers?

Section 44.

What aims did the abolitionists pursue? Who took part in the abolitionist organizations?
What impact did John Brown's rebellion have?
What was the principal cause of the American Civil War? What had made the Civil War inevitable?
Why was Lincoln popular among the farmers and workers? What made him hated by the slave-holders of the South?

Section 45.

Why did the North, although stronger than the South, suffer defeats in 1861 -- 1862?
What did "transition to revolutionary strategy" imply?
What was the Negroes' contribution to the defeat of the rebel slave-holders?

Section 46.
What were the consequences of the Civil War for the bourgeoisie, the workers, the farmers, the Negroes, and the Indians?
In what respect was the American Civil War a form of bourgeois revolution?


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post #9  quote:

The question I highlighted I think is a great question to ask about Mr. George Dubya Bush today.

http://www.inreview.com/showthread....458&forumid=164

a thread that has potential and semi-intelligent discussion in the Presidential Election Forum. No doubt it will be buried in flaming and stupidity but it is relevant.


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